The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) describes temporal anomalies in evapotranspiration (ET), highlighting areas with anomalously high or low rates of water use across the land surface. Here, ET is retrieved via energy balance using remotely sensed land-surface temperature (LST) time-change signals. LST is a fast- response variable, providing proxy information regarding rapidly evolving surface soil moisture and crop stress conditions at relatively high spatial resolution. The ESI also demonstrates capability for capturing early signals of “flash drought”, brought on by extended periods of hot, dry and windy conditions leading to rapid soil moisture depletion.
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Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) - Contiguous US
How to use this site:
- View and compare Evaporitve Stress Index (ESI) maps for the Contiguous US
- Use the “Download” option to have maps as images
- Select the “Archive” tab to view/compare past maps
- Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, G. R. Diak, W. P. Kustas, and J. R. Mecikalski, 1997: A two-source time-integrated model for estimating surface fluxes using thermal infrared remote sensing. Remote Sens. Environ., 60, 195-216.
- Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, J. R. Mecikalski, J. P. Otkin, and W. P. Kustas, 2007a: A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental U.S. based on thermal remote sensing: I. Model formulation. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10117, doi:10110.11029/12006JD007506.
- Anderson, M. C., J. M. Norman, J. R. Mecikalski, J. P. Otkin, and W. P. Kustas, 2007b: A climatological study of evapotranspiration and moisture stress across the continental U.S. based on thermal remote sensing: II. Surface moisture climatology. J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11112, doi:11110.11029/12006JD007507.
- Anderson, M. C., C. R. Hain, B. Wardlow, J. R. Mecikalski, and W. P. Kustas (2011), Evaluation of a drought index based on thermal remote sensing of evapotranspiration over the continental U.S., J. Climate, 24, 2025-2044.
- McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, and J. Kleist, 1993: The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. AMS Eighth conf. on Applied Climatology, Anaheim, CA, 179-184.
- McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken, and J. Kleist, 1995: Drought monitoring with multiple time scales. AMS Ninth conf. on Applied Climatology, Dallas, TX, 233-236.
- Norman, J. M., W. P. Kustas, and K. S. Humes, 1995: A two-source approach for estimating soil and vegetation energy fluxes from observations of directional radiometric surface temperature. Agric. For. Met., 77, 263-293.
- Svoboda, M., and Coauthors, 2002: The Drought Monitor. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., 83, 1181-1190.
Data Source: NOAA Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) and USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory
Data Type: Satellite
Data Format: images